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Wheat Field with Crows

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Details
Oil on canvas
50.5 x 103.0 cm.
Auvers-sur-Oise: July, 1890
F 779, JH 2117

Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum

History
Provenance
Exhibitions

Analysis
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Introduction

Wheat Field with Crows stands out as one of Vincent van Gogh's most powerful, and most fiercely debated, paintings. The many interpretations of this particular work are probably more varied than any other in Van Gogh's oeuvre. Some see it as Van Gogh's "suicide note" put to canvas, while others delve beyond a superficial overview of the subject matter and favour a more positive approach. And some more extreme critics cast their vision even further--beyond the canvas and the brushstrokes--in order to translate the images into an entirely new language of the subliminal.

Artistic analysis is, by its very nature, a subjective endeavour. Still, the most reasonable interpretations are best undertaken from a foundation based on facts.


Background

Contrary to popular myth Wheat Field with Crows is not Van Gogh's final work. Admittedly, it does make for a neatly wrapped interpretive gift if the painting really were Van Gogh's final work before his suicide. The painting is, without question, turbulent and certainly conveys a sense of loneliness in the fields--a powerful image of Van Gogh as defeated and solitary artist in his final years. Furthermore, both the popular films Lust for Life and Vincent and Theo rewrite history and depict this painting as Van Gogh's last--with more of an interest in dramatic effect than historical accuracy. As is ideally the case, however, an entertaining, though apocryphal, tale should be put to rest in the face of irrefutable fact.

Precise dating of Wheat Field with Crows is difficult because of its similarity to other works that Van Gogh was painting, and writing about, from the same period. In Letter 649, written about 10 July 1890, Van Gogh describes three canvases:


They are vast fields of wheat under troubled skies, and I did not need to go out of my way to try to express sadness and extreme loneliness. I hope you will see them soon--for I hope to bring them to you in Paris as soon as possible, since I almost think that these canvases will tell you what I cannot say in words, the health and restorative forces that I see in the country. Now the third canvas is Daubigny's garden, a picture I have been thinking about since I came here.

This passage presents difficulties. First because Van Gogh himself is writing in contradictions when he describes the works as conveying "sadness and extreme loneliness" on the one hand, but also "health and restorative forces" on the other. More significantly, one of the world's foremost experts on the letters of Van Gogh, Dr. Jan Hulsker, maintains that Wheat Field with Crows isn't even one of the three works mentioned by Van Gogh in this letter. Hulsker maintains that the former two works mentioned by Van Gogh in the quote above are The Fields and Wheat Fields at Auvers under Clouded Sky,1 whereas a number of other sources instead believe that the two works are, in fact, likely to be Wheat Field with Crows and Wheat Field under Clouded Sky.2. All four works fit in roughly with Van Gogh's own description of "troubled skies", but given that Van Gogh didn't provide specific details about the size of the works (calling them only "big") the speculation continues with no resolution in sight.

Regardless of the perplexities of which works are mentioned in Letter 649, Van Gogh scholar Ronald Pickvance in his book Van Gogh in Saint-Rémy and Auvers supports Dr. Hulsker's argument for an earlier dating of this painting with his own analysis of the letters. Pickvance explores the letters in depth and dates Wheat Field with Crows "contemporaneously from 7 to 10 July",3 more than two weeks before Van Gogh committed suicide. Finally, Hulsker puts the argument about Van Gogh's last works to rest by maintaining that they were ". . . Daubigny's Garden and Cottages with Thatched Roofs and Figures, both of which are far more likely to have been the last paintings [sic] he made."4

Thus, given that Wheat Field with Crows is almost certainly not Van Gogh's final work, the "suicide note" interpretation should be cast aside. Still, there are many arguments to support the idea that the painting represents Van Gogh's own inner torment and despair. And for each of these arguments there are equally compelling counter-arguments to suggest that an opposite interpretation is just as valid.


Symbolic Interpretations

From a symbolic perspective it's worthwhile to review the basic elements of the painting and then explore each from vastly different interpretive ends of the spectrum.

  • The paths: It's not a difficult leap to symbolically equate the separate paths in Wheat Field with Crows with the paths, past and future, of Van Gogh's own life. The paths are basically comprised of three sets: two in each foreground corner and a third in the middle winding toward the horizon. The left and right foreground paths defy logic in that they seem to originate from nowhere and lead to nowhere. Some have interpreted this as Van Gogh's own ongoing confusion about the sporadic direction his own life had taken. The third, middle path has remained the most fertile for symbolic interpretation. Does the path lead anywhere? Does it successfully transverse the wheat field and seek new horizons? Or does it, in fact, terminate in an inescapable dead end? Van Gogh leaves it to the viewer to decide.

  • The sky: From his earliest years as an artist Van Gogh was fond of scenes involving stormy skies (see Beach at Scheveningen in Stormy Weather, for example). Van Gogh held a great deal of respect for the forces of nature and includes turbulent skies in a number of his works because the subject is so powerful and so full of artistic potential in the face of an empty canvas. Furthermore, Van Gogh once wrote about the liberating possibilities of storms: "The pilot sometimes succeeds in using a storm to make headway, instead of being wrecked by it." (Letter 197). Of course, as the years passed and Van Gogh's own mental state of well being became more battered, his perceptions toward nature may have darkened. Nevertheless, it can be argued that Van Gogh perceived storms as a vital and positive part of nature (admittedly, at least as he suggests in his earlier letters).

  • The crows: Perhaps the most powerful image within Wheat Field with Crows is that of the crows themselves. Again, much symbolic interpretation has sprung from the depiction of the flock of crows. Much of the speculation hinges on whether the crows are flying toward the painter (and, hence, the viewer) or away from him. If the viewer chooses to perceive the crows flying toward the foreground, then the work becomes more foreboding. If away, then a sense of relief is felt. The argument is flawed on two fronts.

    First of all, as spirited and entertaining as the "flying toward / flying away" discussion might be, it's a point that will never be resolved. The truth is, there's no certain answer as to which direction, if any at all, the crows are flying. Much like "the chicken and the egg" argument, this point remains unsolvable and, consequently, moot.

    Secondly, and more importantly, the interpretation of crows as harbingers of death is a completely artificial construct. And furthermore, one that Van Gogh, in his own writings, never appears to accept; on the contrary. Vincent van Gogh had a passion and a keen eye for all things in nature. As a result, his writings reflect an appreciation of, rather than a disdain for crows:


    Last week, I was at Hampton Court to see the beautiful gardens and long avenues of horse chestnuts and lime trees, in the tops of which a multitude of crows and rooks have built their nests, and also to see the palace and the paintings.

    Letter 70


    I did see a great many crows on the Great Church in the morning. Now it will soon be spring again and the larks, too, will be returning. "He reneweth the face of the earth," and it is written: "Behold, I make all things new," and much as He renews the face of the earth, so He can also renew and strengthen man's soul and heart and mind.

    Letter 85


    Furthermore, Van Gogh was well aware of the effective use of crows within the works of other painters he greatly admired. In addition to a "magnificent" work by Giacomelli that used a crow motif (Letter R29), Van Gogh also admired the crows depicted in the works of Daubigny as well as the one painter Van Gogh revered above all others, Jean-François Millet (see Letter 136).

    It would be foolish to dismiss the undeniably foreboding nature of the crows altogether, but the traditional interpretation of crows as symbols of death is too oversimplistic and conventional to apply to Van Gogh's approach toward Wheat Field with Crows.


Hidden Meanings . . . . .

Many people who favour symbolic interpretations of Vincent van Gogh's works have taken their analysis to another level. Over the years a number of writers have explored in detail the various symbols and images allegedly hidden within the subjects of Van Gogh's paintings and drawings. These images are claimed to be "hidden" visual messages within the works, perhaps intentionally created by Van Gogh (as a possible "message in a bottle" to perceptive future generations), or perhaps subliminal "whispers" Van Gogh unconsciously deposited into his own the brush strokes.

Wheat Field with Crows is a painting ripe for this sort of interpretation. Writer Yvonne Korshak analyzes the painting and reveals various images hidden throughout the canvas. These images include a giant bird filling the sky, a "cloud presence" and a Gabriel-like trumpeter within the clouds (shown in the detail at right). She explains:

In Van Gogh's canvases can be found the evidence of resolution on the plane of art of conflict between realism and imagination and between his aniconic Protestant conscience and his need to visualize images of salvation. Van Gogh's method of working includes the projection of spiritual longing through images that are merged with the natural landscape, and a fusing of realist and spiritual content.5

Many people feel that interpretations like those of Ms. Korshak's open exciting, new possibilities. What secrets lie intermingled within the brush strokes? Are there truly images in Wheat Field with Crows that hint at revelations undiscovered for more than century? Perhaps a search of my own will yield some answers . . . . .

If one focuses specifically on the cloud bundle on the mid-right side of the sky, one can find a hidden image if this area is rotated 130 degrees counter-clockwise. The close-up of this image, shown at right, clearly depicts a left ear. Everyone familiar with the story of Vincent van Gogh is well-aware of the artist's mutilation of his left ear. What message was Van Gogh trying to convey by concealing this image within Wheat Field with Crows? What secrets does this previously undiscovered image reveal?

In a word, none. In order to illustrate my point that the whole pursuit of hidden images within Van Gogh works is a fruitless and unproductive undertaking, I went "treasure hunting" for these sorts of images myself. I merely turned the painting upside down and then scouted the sky for any potential symbolic representations. Within about five seconds an ear-like shape was barely apparent, but became more clear after rotating it to the proper angle. The truth is, far more time was spent cropping and rotating the image than in actually finding it. There is no "ear" within the sky of Wheat Field with Crows.

It's somewhat entertaining to speculate about such things, just as it's enjoyable to lay under a tree and search for elephants and dragons in the fleeting clouds of the summer sky. But to firmly maintain that Van Gogh deliberately hid subliminal images within his works is an effort in futility. Worse still, it's an endeavour that detracts from an appreciation of the overall work itself and, by the desperate need to see beyond the limits of the naked eye, it's a pursuit that is ultimately self-defeating.


Conclusion

The various interpretations of Wheat Field with Crows range from the simple to the absurd. Symbolic interpretation can be an often interesting, occasionally revealing, pursuit. But the potential of over-interpreting a work of art puts the viewer at risk of "missing the forest for the trees". The works of Vincent van Gogh provide the viewer with an incredibly complex and beautiful range of subjects to explore and to admire. His drawings are the product of a draftsman of indescribable skill and his paintings are always brilliant, often sublime. Viewers spending time searching for in-depth meanings within Wheat Field with Crows may be disappointed. For some, their unquenchable desire to understand the Van Gogh mythology better even sends them on a quest for hidden "holy grails" that don't exist.

Instead of seeking answers within Wheat Field with Crows, the viewer would find their time well spent if they simply admired the subject of this extraordinary painting: the colour, the vitality and the turbulent harmony of each and every brush stroke. The intangible secrets, if there are any, will continue to wheel in their own ineffable realm--like the crows.


1. Jan Hulsker, Vincent van Gogh: A Guide to His Works and Letters (Waanders, 1993), p. 42.
2. John Leighton, Wheatfield with Crows (Waanders, 1999), p. 23.
3. Ronald Pickvance, Van Gogh in Saint-Rémy and Auvers (Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1986), p. 276.
4. Jan Hulsker, The New Complete Van Gogh: Paintings, Drawings, Sketches (Meulenhoff, 1996), p. 478.
5. Yvonne Korshak, "Realism and Transcendent Imagery: Van Gogh's 'Crows over the Wheatfield'" (Pantheon 43, 1985), p. 115.


Provenance

Owner City Country Date acquired Comments
Theo van Gogh Paris France 1890-91  
Johanna van Gogh-Bonger Amsterdam Netherlands 1891-1925  
V.W. van Gogh Laren Netherlands 1925-62 On loan to the Stedelijk Museum 1931-62.
Van Gogh Foundation Amsterdam Netherlands 1962 On loan to the Stedelijk Museum 1962-73.
Van Gogh Museum Amsterdam Netherlands 1973 On permanent loan from the Vincent van Gogh Foundation.


Exhibitions

Year City Country Venue Exhibition Name Start Date End Date No.
1905 Amsterdam Netherlands Stedelijk Museum Tentoonstelling Vincent van Gogh 15 July 1905 1 August 1905 234
1905 Utrecht Netherlands Vereeniging 'Voor de Kunst' Tentoonstelling van schilderijen door Vincent van Gogh 10 September 1905 1 October 1905 59
1908 Dresden Germany Emil Richter Vincent van Gogh/Paul Cézanne  
 
69
1908 Munich (1) Germany Moderne Kunsthandlung [F.J. Brakl] Vincent van Gogh  
 
71
1908 Berlin (4) Germany Paul Cassirer
 
 
69
1908 Paris (1) France Galerie Bernheim-Jeune Cent tableaux de Vincent van Gogh 6 January 1908 1 February 1908 100
1908 Frankfurt Germany Frankfurter Kunstverein Vincent van Gogh Ausstellung 14 June 1908 28 June 1908 80
1910-11 London United Kingdom Grafton Galleries Manet and the Post-Impressionists 8 November 1910 16 January 1911 71
1911-12 Hamburg Germany Galerie Commeter  
10 November 1911  
32
1914 Berlin (1) Germany Paul Cassirer Vincent van Gogh 30 März 1853-29 July 1890. Zehnte Ausstellung 1 June 1914 5 July 1914 145
1915 Amsterdam Netherlands Gebouw van het Genootschap van kunstenaren Moderne Kunstkring Vincent van Gogh, werken van genooten. schilderijen, teekeningen en beeldhouwwerien 26 September 1915 30 November 1915 20
1923 Amsterdam Netherlands Stedelijk Museum Tentoonstelling van Nederlandsche beeldende kunsten  
 
128
1923-24 London United Kingdom Leicester Galleries Vincent van Gogh Exhibition 1 December 1923 15 January 1923 39
1924 Basel Switzerland Kunsthalle Basel Vincent van Gogh 27 March 1924 4 May 1924 79
1924 Zurich Switzerland Kunsthaus Zurich Vincent van Gogh 3 July 1924 10 August 1924 76
1924 Stuttgart Germany Württembergischer Kunstverein Ausstellung Vincent van Gogh 1853-1890 12 October 1924 30 November 1924 38
1925 The Hague Netherlands Pulchri Studio Vincent van Gogh  
 
5
1925 Paris (1) France Galerie Marcel Bernheim Exposition rétrospective d'oeuvres de Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) 5 January 1925 24 January 1925 55
1927 Paris France Galerie Bernheim-Jeune Vincent van Gogh l'époque française 20 June 1927 2 July 1927  
1928 Munich Germany Graphisches Kabinett Vincent van Gogh. Fünfunddreißig Unbekannte Gemälde aus Privatbesitz 5 May 1928  
35
1930 Amsterdam Netherlands Stedelijk Museum Vincent van Gogh en zijn tijdgenooten 6 September 1930 2 November 1930 108
1935-36 New York United States Museum of Modern Art Vincent van Gogh 5 November 1935 5 January 1936 66
1936 Philadelphia United States Philadelphia Museum of Art Vincent van Gogh 11 January 1936 10 February 1936 66
1936 Boston United States Museum of Fine Arts Vincent van Gogh 19 February 1936 15 March 1936 66
1936 Cleveland (1) United States Cleveland Museum of Art Vincent van Gogh 25 March 1936 19 April 1936 66
1936 San Francisco United States California Palace of the Legion of Honor Vincent van Gogh 28 April 1936 24 May 1936 66
1936 Kansas City United States William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Atkins Museum Vincent van Gogh 9 June 1936 10 July 1936 66
1936 Minneapolis United States Minneapolis Institute of Arts Vincent van Gogh 20 July 1936 17 August 1936 66
1936 Chicago United States Art Institute of Chicago Vincent van Gogh 26 August 1936 23 September 1936 66
1936 Detroit United States Detroit Institute of Arts Vincent van Gogh 6 October 1936 28 October 1936 66
1945 Amsterdam Netherlands Stedelijk Museum Vincent van Gogh 14 September 1945 1 December 1945 ---
1946 Stockholm Sweden Nationalmuseum Vincent van Gogh. Utställning Anordnad till Förmän för Svenska Hollandshjälpen 8 March 1946 28 April 1946 104
1946 Gothenburg Sweden Göteborgs Konstmuseum Vincent van Gogh. Utställning Anordnad till Förmän för Svenska Hollandshjälpen 3 May 1946 26 May 1946 104
1946 Malmö Sweden Malmö Museum Vincent van Gogh. Utställning Anordnad till Förmän för Svenska Hollandshjälpen 29 May 1946 16 June 1946 104
1946 Liège Belgium Musée des Beaux-Arts Vincent van Gogh 12 October 1946 3 November 1946 171
1946 Brussels Belgium Palais des Beaux-Arts Vincent van Gogh 9 November 1946 19 December 1946 171
1946-47 Mons Belgium Musée des Beaux-Arts Vincent van Gogh 27 December 1946  
171
1947 Paris (1) France Musée de l'Orangerie Vincent van Gogh 24 January 1947 15 March 1947 172
1947 Geneva Switzerland Musée Rath 172 oeuvres de Vincent van Gogh 22 March 1947 20 April 1947 172
1947-48 London United Kingdom Tate Gallery Vincent van Gogh 1853-1890 10 December 1947 14 January 1948 99
1948 Birmingham United Kingdom City Art Gallery Vincent van Gogh 1853-1890 24 January 1948 14 February 1948 99
1948 Glasgow Scotland Art Gallery Vincent van Gogh 1853-1890 21 February 1948 14 March 1948 99
1948 Bergen Norway Kunstforening Vincent van Gogh, Malerier Tegninger 23 March 1948 18 April 1948 67
1948 Oslo Norway Kunstnernes Hus Vincent van Gogh, Malerier Tegninger 24 April 1948 15 May 1948 67
1949-50 New York United States Metropolitan Museum of Art Vincent van Gogh Paintings and Drawings. A Special Loan Exhibition 21 October 1949 15 January 1950 153
1950 Chicago United States Art Institute of Chicago Vincent van Gogh Paintings and Drawings. A Special Loan Exhibition 1 February 1950 16 April 1950 153
1951 Lyons France Musée de Lyon Vincent van Gogh 5 February 1951 27 March 1951 83
1951 Arles France Musée Réattu Vincent van Gogh en Provence 5 May 1951 27 May 1951 83
1953 The Hague Netherlands Haags Gemeentemuseum Vincent van Gogh 1853-1953 30 March 1953 17 May 1953 197
1953 Otterlo Netherlands Kröller-Müller Museum Eeuwfeest Vincent van Gogh 1853-1953 24 May 1953 19 July 1953 189
1953 Amsterdam Netherlands Stedelijk Museum Eeuwfeest Vincent van Gogh 23 July 1953 20 September 1953 189
1954 Zurich Switzerland Kunsthaus Zurich Vincent van Gogh 9 October 1954 21 November 1954 77
1955 Palm Beach United States Society of the Four Arts Vincent van Gogh 1853-1890 21 January 1955 13 February 1955 32
1955 Miami United States Lowe Gallery of the University of Miami Vincent van Gogh 1853-1890 24 February 1955 20 March 1955 32
1955 New Orleans United States Isaac Delgado Museum Vincent van Gogh 1853-1890 27 March 1955 20 April 1955 32
1955 Antwerp (1) Belgium Feestzaal Vincent van Gogh 7 May 1955 19 June 1955 364
1955 Liverpool United Kingdom Walker Art Gallery Vincent van Gogh. Paintings and Drawings, Mainly from the Collection of Ir. V.W. van Gogh 29 October 1955 10 December 1955 83
1955-56 Manchester United Kingdom Manchester City Art Gallery Vincent van Gogh. Paintings and Drawings, Mainly from the Collection of Ir. V.W. van Gogh 17 December 1955 4 February 1956 83
1956 Newcastle-upon-Tyne United Kingdom Laing Art Gallery Vincent van Gogh. Paintings and Drawings, Mainly from the Collection of Ir. V.W. van Gogh 11 February 1956 24 March 1956 83
1957 Marseilles France Musée Cantini Vincent van Gogh 12 March 1957 28 April 1957 87
1958 San Francisco United States M.H. de Young Memorial Museum Vincent van Gogh. Paintings and Drawings 6 October 1958 30 November 1958 84
1958-59 Los Angeles United States Los Angeles County Museum of Art Vincent van Gogh. Paintings and Drawings 10 December 1958 18 January 1959 84
1959 Portland United States Portland Art Museum Vincent van Gogh. Paintings and Drawings 28 January 1959 1 March 1959 84
1959 Seattle United States Seattle Art Museum Vincent van Gogh. Paintings and Drawings 7 March 1959 19 April 1959 84
1959-60 Utrecht Netherlands Centraal Museum Vincent van Gogh schilderijen en tekeningen verzameling Ir. V.W. van Gogh 18 December 1959 1 February 1960 64
1960 Montreal Canada Montreal Museum of Fine Arts Canada Collects: European Painting 1860-1960 6 October 1960 6 November 1960 79
1960 Ottawa Canada National Gallery of Canada Canada Collects: European Painting 1860-1960 17 November 1960 18 December 1960 79
1960-61 Winnipeg Canada Winnipeg Art Gallery Vincent van Gogh. Paintings-Drawings 29 December 1960 31 January 1961 79
1961 Toronto Canada Art Gallery of Toronto Vincent van Gogh. Paintings-Drawings 10 February 1961 12 March 1961 79
1961 Baltimore United States Baltimore Museum of Art Vincent van Gogh. Paintings, Watercolours and Drawings 18 October 1961 26 November 1961 81
1961-62 Cleveland United States Cleveland Museum of Art Vincent van Gogh. Paintings, Watercolours and Drawings 5 December 1961 14 January 1962 81
1962 Buffalo United States Albright Art Gallery Vincent van Gogh. Paintings, Watercolours and Drawings 30 January 1962 11 March 1962 81
1962 Boston United States Museum of Fine Arts Vincent van Gogh. Paintings, Watercolours and Drawings 22 March 1962 29 April 1962 81
1963 Humlebaek Denmark Louisiana Vincent van Gogh. Malerier og Tegninger 24 October 1963 15 December 1963 60
1964 Washington, D.C. United States Washington Gallery of Modern Art Vincent van Gogh. Paintings, Watercolours and Drawings 2 February 1964 19 March 1964 60
1964 New York (4) United States Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Vincent van Gogh. Paintings, Watercolours and Drawings 2 April 1964 28 June 1964 60
1965 Charleroi Belgium Palais des Beaux-Arts Vincent van Gogh. Schilderijen, Aquarellen, Tekeningen 19 January 1965 28 March 1965 41
1965 Ghent Belgium Museum voor Schone Kunsten Vincent van Gogh. Schilderijen, Aquarellen, Tekeningen 19 February 1965 21 March 1965 41
1965 Stockholm Sweden Moderna Museet Vincent van Gogh. Mälningar, Akvareller, Teckningar 23 October 1965 19 December 1965 60
1965-66 Gothenburg Sweden Göteborgs Konstmuseum Vincent van Gogh. Mälningar, Akvareller, Teckningar 30 December 1965 20 February 1966 60
1967 Wolfsburg Germany Stadhalle Wolfsburg Vincent van Gogh. Gemälde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen 18 February 1967 2 April 1967 81
1968-69 London United Kingdom Hayward Gallery Vincent van Gogh. Paintings and Drawings of the Vincent van Gogh Foundation Amsterdam 23 October 1968 12 January 1969 201
1970 Baltimore United States Baltimore Museum of Art Vincent van Gogh. Paintings and Drawings 11 October 1970 29 November 1970 68
1970-71 San Francisco United States M.H. de Young Memorial Museum Vincent van Gogh. Paintings and Drawings 11 December 1970 31 January 1971 68
1971 Brooklyn United States Brooklyn Museum Vincent van Gogh. Paintings and Drawings 14 February 1971 4 April 1971 68
1973 Bern Switzerland Kunstmuseum Bern Vincent van Gogh. Collection du Musée National Vincent van Gogh à Amsterdam 25 January 1973 15 April 1973 47
1986-87 New York United States Metropolitan Museum of Art Van Gogh in Saint-Rémy and Auvers 12 November 1986 22 March 1987 85
1990 Amsterdam Netherlands Van Gogh Museum Vincent van Gogh. Schilderijen 30 March 1990 29 July 1990 132
1997 Tokyo Japan Seiji Togo Memorial Yasuda Kasai Museum of Art Vincent van Gogh and His Time. Four Seasons from the Vincent van Gogh Museum and the H.W. Mesdag Museum 12 September 1997 11 November 1997
1998-99 Washington, D.C. United States National Gallery of Art Van Gogh's Van Goghs. Masterpieces from the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam 4 October 1998 3 January 1999 70
1999 Los Angeles United States Los Angeles County Museum of Art Van Gogh's Van Goghs. Masterpieces from the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam 17 January 1999 16 May 1999 70
2003 Amsterdam (2) Netherlands Van Gogh Museum Gogh Modern 27 June 2003 12 October 2003 ---
2005-06 Amsterdam (1) Netherlands Van Gogh Museum Fierce Friends: Artists & Animals in the Industrial Era, 1750-1900 5 October 2005 5 February 2006  
2006-07 Amsterdam Netherlands Van Gogh Museum Vincent van Gogh and Expressionism 24 November 2006 4 March 2007 ---

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